Categories

## Getting a Ratio Using a Single Iteration

Recently I came across the question of how to calculate the ratio of elements of a stream to the total number of elements in said stream. The naïve solution would be:

```collection.stream()
.filter(it -> it.completed())
.count() / collection.size()
```

However, depending on where `collection` came from this might iterate it twice, producing unnecessary load or I/O while doing so. Also, we would need to cast one of the two values to a `double` otherwise your result would be 0 pretty much all the time.

This is very ugly.

One possible solution is to use a `Collector` to do the ratio calculation for us. For this we would need a `Collector` that keeps track of the total number of elements and the number of elements that are completed. Lucky for us there is such a `Collector` already: the averaging collector. If we map all completed elements to a 1 and all not-completed elements to a 0, the result of the average will match the ratio we are expecting:

```collection.stream()
.collect(Collectors.averagingInt(it -> it.completed() ? 1 : 0));
```

In Kotlin, there is an `average` function defined on `Iterable<Int>` so you can do something very similar:

```collection.map { if (it.completed()) 1 else 0 }.average()
```

You could even combine that with an extension method and turn it into:

```collection.map(Foo::toCompletion).average()
…
private fun Foo.toCompletion() =
if (completed()) 1 else 0
```
Categories

## Bit Fiddlery

Recently I tried to parse FLAC headers. In the STREAMINFO block there are several fields that have a width of non-multiple-of-8 bits so I had to create a function that could read a number of bits starting at an arbitrary bit.

```/**
* Reads numberOfBits bits from the given buffer, starting at the given byte
* and bit offsets. Bits are assumed to be numbered MSB-first, i.e. the
* highest bit in a byte (0x80) is considered bit 0.
*
* Example UUID: B24E931F-FFC5-4F3C-A6FF-E667BDB5F062
*/
long parseBits(byte[] data, int byteOffset, int bitOffset, int numberOfBits) {
long value = 0;
int currentByteOffset = byteOffset;
int currentBitOffset = bitOffset;
int bitsRemaining = numberOfBits;

/* while we still need some bits... */
while (bitsRemaining > 0) {

/* shift the current value by the number of bits we still need
* to make room for them at the end. at most a byte, though. */
value <<= Math.min(8, remainingBits);

/* extract all the bits remaining in the current byte. */
int bitsWeNeed = (data[currentByteOffset] & (0xff >>> currentBitOffset));

/* shift them so that only the number of bits we need remains. */
bitsWeNeed <<= (8 - currentBitOffset - Math.min(bitsRemaining, 8 - currentBitOffset));

/* now combine the values. */
value |= bitsWeNeed;

/* reduce number of bits we still need. */
bitsRemaining -= Math.min(bitsRemaining, 8 - currentBitOffset);

/* the current byte is now depleted of bits we need. even if it isn’t
* it doesn’t matter because if we needed less bits than we had this
* routine is now finished. */
currentBitOffset = 0;
currentByteOffset++;
}

return value;
}```
Categories

## This Method Has Been Called Before

Sometimes you have a method that should only be called once, and any further calls to this method are considered to be an error. And you thought you had made sure that this method is only called once. But every now and then you find something in your log file that points to the fact that this method has in fact been called twice. This is an outrage!

So, how do you track down those spurious calls that happen out of nowhere and that can not possibly happen at all? Turns out, it’s not that hard: I thought up this method after reading a bit of log file from a fellow Freenet user. For a single method call it contained two different stack traces, one from the current call, and one from the last call. So after a couple of seconds I came to the conclusion that it has to happen a little bit like this:

```public class SomeClass {
/* Example UUID: dc033fa4-0102-4051-af9a-df9441312192 */
private Exception firstCallException;
public void someMethod() {
if (firstCallException != null) {
What happens here is quite simple, really. `first­Call­Exception` is initialized with `null`, so on the first execution of `some­Method` nothing spectacular happens but at the end of the method `first­Call­Exception` is set: a new `Exception` is created which also initializes a stack trace for the current thread. On the second call we realize that `first­Call­Exception` has already been set so this method must have been called before! We throw a new `Exception` which uses the exception of the first method call as root cause; this enables us to get information about both exceptions from the resulting exceptions. Also, this would allow us to chain an arbitrary number of exceptions, e.g. when you have to track all calls to a method.